Evs that inhibit viral infection
Because EVs and Viruses are similar and retroviruses and enveloped viruses generate EVs as part of their reproduction strategies, it is possible to speculate that engineering EVs can open the door to mitigating viral infections.
In the cases of hepatitis a or hiv-1, extracellular vesicles are used to enhance the chances of infection of healthy cells. In the same lines, slightly modified EVs can halt the spread of viral particles into healthy cells[@hoen2016Extracellular vesicles and viruses: Are they close relatives?]. It is my understanding that the use of EVs is still limited to diagnostics (see, for example, EVs can be used as ovarian cancer markers).
In other words, EVs can be used to modulate host responses (as currently done by some virus).
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