Extracellular vesicles

First published:

Last Edited:

Number of edits:

Extracellular Vesicles (shortened as EV's) are sub-micron sized particles which have an enclosing membrane. They are one mechanism for inter-cellular communication. They are composed of lipids and proteins, and there may be nucleic acid inside (the cargo)[@libregts2018Flow cytometric analysis of extracellular vesicle subsets in plasma: impact of swarm by particles of non-interest].

Extracellular vesicles were initially called nanovesicles, and they belong to one of three different categories based on their biogenesis:[@pedrioli2021Extracellular Vesicles as Promising Carriers in Drug Delivery: Considerations from a Cell Biologist’s Perspective, @elsharkasy2020Extracellular vesicles as drug delivery systems: Why and how?]

There is a possibility of using exosomes as drug delivery systems since they are biocompatible, and already have a similar natural role in multicellular organisms[@pedrioli2021Extracellular Vesicles as Promising Carriers in Drug Delivery: Considerations from a Cell Biologist’s Perspective, @elsharkasy2020Extracellular vesicles as drug delivery systems: Why and how?].

Another alternative is using EVs as biomarkers, since it is believed that the regulation of the release and composition of these particles can be correlated to certain diseases.

The biggest challenge is that most exosomes and microvesicles are <500nm in diameter, and therefore hard to detect by standard means. Moreover, detecting rare particles (perhaps 1% of the particles change between healthy and non healthy humans). This is why detecting Low abundance EVs may be crucial in the future.

Techniques such as Simoa, SP-IRIS, or Multiplex bead-based flow cytometry can be useful tools to detect rare events. Perhaps the EVQuant protocol is also relevant in these contexts.


Do other organisms use EV's for intracellular communication? I assume most animals do, what about plants?


These are the other notes that link to this one.

About this Website
Quantifying the concentration of evs in urine or plasma through confocal microscopy
Multiplex biomarker assays perform better than single cancer biomarkers
Measuring size of evs with confocal microscopy
Aquiles Carattino Open Notes
Aquiles Carattino Open Notes
Sobre Aquiles Carattino
Tetraspanins are unevenly distributed across extracellular vesicles
Ultra centrifugations is the most popular ev enrichment method
Xiaomei yan
Separating evs based on density
About Aquiles Carattino
Multiplex bead-based flow cytometry
Leukemia and lymphoma
Low abundance evs
Hiv-1 contains cd9 and cd63
Ev targeting
Ev isolation and purification
Ev labeling methods and cautions learned from flow cytometric analysis of single evs by xiaomei yan
Evs that inhibit viral infection
Extracellular vesicles as markers for prostate cancer
Blood-derived evs are more challenging to study
Apoptotic bodies
Aquiles Carattino, Physicist, Entrepreneur, and everything in between.
Essays/exciting vesicles - the field where biology meets technology
Literature/202212281528 refractive index measurement of evs with inta
Literature/202212281528 refractive index measurement of evs with inta
Literature/202301141333 comparing simoa and sp-iris
Literature/202301141616 membrane-binding peptides to detect small evs
Literature/202301241141 separation of vesicles with free flow electrophoresis
Literature/202306221512 sers to identify cancer evs


Share your thoughts on this note
Aquiles Carattino
Aquiles Carattino
This note you are reading is part of my digital garden. Follow the links to learn more, and remember that these notes evolve over time. After all, this website is not a blog.
© 2021 Aquiles Carattino
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
Privacy Policy