Evs and viruses are similar
Both EVs and viruses are similar in a lot of regards. They both contain genetic material, are covered with a membrane, their sizes, density, and overall composition is very similar. The only crucial difference is the ability of viruses to reproduce inside of cells, while EVs do not do that[@hoen2016Extracellular vesicles and viruses: Are they close relatives?].
This is especially important for enveloped viruses such as hiv-1 and for retroviruses such as hepatitis a. Moreover, there is a very fine distinction between a virus without the capacity to reproduce (noninfectious viruses) and an EV generated from a healthy cell.
One crucial difference between them, however, is whether EV's can spread from one organism to another. This is a very interesting question and apparently is not fully answered yet. Can breast milk or semen contain EVs that move from one person to another?
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